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Builder's Guide To Desktop Computer Components

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Last Reviewed/Updated: 21 Jul 2016 | Published: 18 Jan 2011 | Status: Active

  1. 1.  Introduction
  2. 2.  Chipset
    1. 2.1.  Latest AMD Desktop Chipsets By AMD
    2. 2.2.  Latest Intel Desktop Chipsets By Intel
      1. 2.2.1.  Intel 5 Series Chipset (Desktop)
      2. 2.2.2.  Intel 6 Series Chipset (Desktop)
      3. 2.2.3.  Intel 7 Series Chipset (Desktop)
      4. 2.2.4.  Intel 8 Series Chipset (Desktop)
      5. 2.2.5.  Intel 9 Series Chipset (Desktop)
      6. 2.2.6.  Intel 100 Series Chipset (Desktop)
      7. 2.2.7.  Intel Chipsets For Intel High End Desktop Processors
  3. 3.  Motherboard
  4. 4.  Processor
    1. 4.1.  Latest AMD Desktop Processor Technologies
    2. 4.2.  Latest Intel Desktop Processor Technologies
      1. 4.2.1.  Previous Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop)
      2. 4.2.2.  2nd Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop)
      3. 4.2.3.  3rd Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop)
      4. 4.2.4.  4th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop)
      5. 4.2.5.  5th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop)
      6. 4.2.6.  6th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop)
      7. 4.2.7.  Intel High End Desktop Processors
  5. 5.  Memory
    1. 5.1.  PC66 Through PC133 SDRAM Memory Specifications
    2. 5.2.  DDR SDRAM Memory Specifications
    3. 5.3.  DDR2 SDRAM Memory Specifications
    4. 5.4.  DDR3 SDRAM Memory Specifications
    5. 5.5.  DDR4 SDRAM Memory Specifications
  6. 6.  PCIe
  7. 7.  GPU
    1. 7.1.  Integrated GPU
    2. 7.2.  Add-in GPU
  8. 8.  Internal Data Storage
    1. 8.1.  PATA Hard Drive
    2. 8.2.  SATA Hard Drive
  9. 9.  USB
  10. 10.  Case
    1. 10.1.  Typical Case Dimensions And Motherboard Form Factor Support
    2. 10.2.  Absolute, Practical, And Preferred Minimum Case Sizes For microATX And ATX Motherboards
    3. 10.3.  Inches To Millimeters
  11. 11.  Power Supply
  12. 12.  Resources And Additional Information

1.  Introduction

When building a computer nothing is more frustrating than finding out the case is too small for the motherboard, the motherboard socket and processor socket are different, the memory notch is in the wrong position, the power supply is missing connectors, and, of course, the video cable does not connect to the GPU. Selecting compatible computer components is one of the challenging aspects of building your own computer. This Web page is a comprehensive review of desktop computer components, including component descriptions, specifications, connections, and compatibility.


2.  Chipset

2.1.  Latest AMD Desktop Chipsets By AMD

Latest AMD Desktop Chipsets By AMD
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 06 Jan 2012)
Chipset Series AMD 8-Series Chipset (amd.com) AMD 9-Series Chipset (amd.com) AMD A-Series
APU Chipset
Desktop
Chipset
AMD 870
Chipset
(amd.com)
AMD 880G
Chipset
(amd.com)
AMD 890GX
Chipset
(amd.com)
AMD 890FX
Chipset
(amd.com)
AMD 970
Chipset
(amd.com)
AMD 990X
Chipset
(amd.com)
AMD 990FX
Chipset
(amd.com)
AMD A55
Chipset
AMD A75
Chipset
AMD A-Series APU
Graphics Support
- - +
Socket AM3 AM3+ (1) FM1
Backward Socket
Support
AM2/AM2+ AM2/AM2+/AM3 -
Forward Socket
Support
AM3+ (2) - -
(1)  The AMD 9-Series Chipset, not the AMD 8-Series Chipset, natively supports socket AM3+ processors. Therefore, for guaranteed full socket AM3+ support, get an AMD 9-Series Chipset motherboard, not an AMD 8-Series Chipset motherboard.
(2)  The AMD 8-Series Chipset natively supports socket AM3 processors, not socket AM3+ processors. For AMD 8-Series Chipset motherboards to support socket AM3+ processors, a motherboard BIOS update, if available, must be installed. If the BIOS update for socket AM3+ processor support is not pre-installed, then a socket AM2, AM2+, or AM3 processor must be installed in order to install the BIOS update. Only after the BIOS update for socket AM3+ processor support is installed can the computer complete the POST and boot with the socket AM3+ processor installed. But perhaps more importantly, even with the BIOS update for socket AM3+ processor support installed, the AMD 8-Series Chipset support for AM3+ processors is partial, not full. Therefore, it is recommended that socket AM3+ processors are installed in AMD 9-Series Chipset motherboards, not AMD 8-Series Chipset motherboards.

2.2.  Latest Intel Desktop Chipsets By Intel

2.2.1.  Intel 5 Series Chipset (Desktop)

Intel 5 Series Chipset (Desktop) supports Previous Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop) for 1156 socket (Clarkdale and Lynnfield).

Intel 5 Series Chipset (Desktop)
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 27 Apr 2016)
Chipset
Series
Intel 5 Series Chipset And Intel 3400 Series Chipset: Datasheet (intel.com)
Desktop
Chipset
Intel Q57
Express
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel H55
Express
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel H57
Express
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel P55
Express
Chipset
Launched Q1'10 Q3'09
Socket (LGA) 1156
Bus Type DMI
PCIe (1) 2.0 @ 2.5GT/s each direction.
USB 2.0 on all ports.
SATA 3.0Gb/s on all ports.
Intel Processor Graphics Support + -
(1)  The PCIe version supported by the motherboard chipset PCH for other PCIe cards, not the PCIe version supported by the processor for PCIe add-in GPU(s).

2.2.2.  Intel 6 Series Chipset (Desktop)

Intel 6 Series Chipset (Desktop) supports 2nd Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop) for 1155 socket (Sandy Bridge) and, with an updated motherboard BIOS, 3rd Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop) for 1155 socket (Ivy Bridge).

Intel 6 Series Chipset (Desktop)
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 27 Apr 2016)
Chipset
Series
Intel 6 Series Chipset And Intel C200 Series Chipset: Datasheet (intel.com)
Desktop
Chipset
Intel B65
Express
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel Q65
Express
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel Q67
Express
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel H61
Express
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel H67
Express
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel Z68
Express
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel P67
Express
Chipset
(intel.com)
Launched Q1'11 Q2'11 Q1'11 Q2'11 Q1'11
Socket (LGA) 1155
Bus Type DMI2
PCIe (1) 2.0 @ 5.0GT/s each direction.
USB 2.0 on all ports.
SATA 3.0Gb/s on all ports. 6.0Gb/s on up to 2 ports.
Intel Processor Graphics Support + -
(1)  The PCIe version supported by the motherboard chipset PCH for other PCIe cards, not the PCIe version supported by the processor for PCIe add-in GPU(s).

2.2.3.  Intel 7 Series Chipset (Desktop)

Intel 7 Series Chipset (Desktop) supports 2nd Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop) for 1155 socket (Sandy Bridge) and 3rd Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop) for 1155 socket (Ivy Bridge).

Intel 7 Series Chipset (Desktop)
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 27 Apr 2016)
Chipset
Series
Intel 7 Series / C216 Chipset Family Platform Controller Hub (PCH): Datasheet (intel.com)
Desktop
Chipset
Intel B75
Express
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel Q75
Express
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel Q77
Express
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel H77
Express
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel Z75
Express
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel Z77
Express
Chipset
(intel.com)
Launched Q2'12
Socket (LGA) 1155
Bus Type DMI2
PCIe (1) 2.0 @ 5.0GT/s each direction.
USB 2.0 on all ports. 3.0 on up to 4 ports.
SATA 3.0Gb/s on all ports. 6.0Gb/s on up to 2 ports.
Intel Processor Graphics Support +
(1)  The PCIe version supported by the motherboard chipset PCH for other PCIe cards, not the PCIe version supported by the processor for PCIe add-in GPU(s).

2.2.4.  Intel 8 Series Chipset (Desktop)

Intel 8 Series Chipset (Desktop) supports 4th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop) for 1150 socket (Haswell and Devil's Canyon, not Crystal Well), not 5th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop) for 1150 socket (Broadwell) (no motherboard BIOS update released).

Intel 8 Series Chipset (Desktop)
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 27 Apr 2016)
Chipset
Series
Intel 8 Series / C220 Series Chipset Family Platform Controller Hub (PCH): Datasheet (intel.com)
Desktop
Chipset
Intel B85
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel Q85
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel Q87
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel H81
Chipset
Intel H87
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel Z87
Chipset
(intel.com)
Launched Q2'13
Socket (LGA) 1150
Bus Type DMI2
PCIe (1) 2.0 @ 5.0GT/s each direction.
USB 2.0 on all ports. 3.0 on up to 6 ports.
SATA 3.0Gb/s on all ports. 6.0Gb/s on up to 6 ports.
Intel Processor Graphics Support +
(1)  The PCIe version supported by the motherboard chipset PCH for other PCIe cards, not the PCIe version supported by the processor for PCIe add-in GPU(s).

2.2.5.  Intel 9 Series Chipset (Desktop)

Intel 9 Series Chipset (Desktop) supports 4th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop) for 1150 socket (Haswell and Devil's Canyon, not Crystal Well) and 5th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop) for 1150 socket (Broadwell).

Intel 9 Series Chipset (Desktop)
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 27 Apr 2016)
Chipset
Series
Intel 9 Series Chipset Family Platform Controller Hub (PCH): Datasheet (intel.com)
Desktop
Chipset
Intel H97
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel Z97
Chipset
(intel.com)
Launched Q2'14
Socket (LGA) 1150
Bus Type DMI2
PCIe (1) 2.0 @ 5.0GT/s each direction.
USB 2.0 on all ports. 3.0 on up to 6 ports.
SATA 3.0Gb/s on all ports. 6.0Gb/s on up to 6 ports.
Intel Processor Graphics Support +
(1)  The PCIe version supported by the motherboard chipset PCH for other PCIe cards, not the PCIe version supported by the processor for PCIe add-in GPU(s).

2.2.6.  Intel 100 Series Chipset (Desktop)

Intel 100 Series Chipset (Desktop) supports 6th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop) for 1151 socket (Skylake).

Intel 100 Series Chipset (Desktop)
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 27 Apr 2016)
Chipset
Series
Intel 100 Series Chipset Family Platform Controller Hub (PCH): Datasheet - Volume 1 Of 2 (intel.com)
Desktop
Chipset
Intel B150
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel Q150
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel Q170
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel H110
Chipset
Intel H170
Chipset
(intel.com)
Intel Z170
Chipset
(intel.com)
Launched Q3'15
Socket (LGA) 1151
Bus Type DMI3 DMI2 DMI3
PCIe (1) 3.0 @ 8.0GT/s each direction 2.0 @ 5.0GT/s each direction 3.0 @ 8.0GT/s each direction
USB 2.0 on all ports. 3.0 on up to 10 ports.
SATA 3.0Gb/s on all ports. 6.0Gb/s on up to 6 ports.
Intel Processor Graphics Support +
(1)  The PCIe version supported by the motherboard chipset PCH for other PCIe cards, not the PCIe version supported by the processor for PCIe add-in GPU(s).

2.2.7.  Intel Chipsets For Intel High End Desktop Processors

Intel X58 Express Chipset supports Previous Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop) for 1366 socket (Bloomfield and Gulftown). Intel X79 Express Chipset supports 3rd Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop) for 2011 socket (Sandy Bridge E) and, with an updated motherboard BIOS, 4th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop) for 2011 socket (Ivy Bridge E). Intel X99 Chipset supports 5th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop) for 2011-v3 socket (Haswell E).

Intel Chipsets For Intel High End Desktop Processors
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 27 Apr 2016)
Chipset Intel X58
Express
Chipset:
Datasheet
(intel.com)
Intel X79
Express
Chipset:
Datasheet
(intel.com)
Intel X99
Chipset:
Datasheet
(intel.com)
Launched Q4'08 Q4'11 Q3'14
Socket (LGA) 1366 2011 2011-v3
Bus Type QPI/DMI DMI2
PCIe (1) 2.0 @ 2.5GT/s each direction. 2.0 @ 5.0GT/s each direction.
USB 2.0 on all ports. 2.0 on all ports.
3.0 on up to 6 ports.
SATA 3.0Gb/s on all ports. 3.0Gb/s on all ports.
6.0Gb/s on up to 2 ports.
3.0Gb/s on all ports.
6.0Gb/s on up to 10 ports.
Intel Processor Graphics Support -
(1)  The PCIe version supported by the motherboard chipset ICH (Intel X58 Express Chipset) and the motherboard chipset PCH (Intel X79 Express Chipset and Intel X99 Chipset) for other PCIe cards, not the PCIe version supported by the motherboard chipset IOH (Intel X58 Express Chipset) nor the processor (Intel X79 Express Chipset and Intel X99 Chipset) for PCIe add-in GPU(s).

3.  Motherboard


4.  Processor

4.1.  Latest AMD Desktop Processors And Technologies

Latest AMD Desktop Processors And Technologies
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 06 Jan 2012)
Processor/
Technology
Sempron
100 Series
Phenom II Athlon II FX A-Series
(1)
Socket AM3 AM3 (2) AM3 (3) AM3+ FM1
Cores
(Model Number)
1 2 (X2)/
4 (X4)/
6 (X6)
2 (X2)/
3 (X3)/
4 (X4)
4 (4000)/
6 (6000)/
8 (8000)
2 (A4)/
3 (A6)/
4 (A6/A8)
AMD Balanced Smart Cache ? + + + ?
Bus HT ? HT 3.0 HT 3.0 HT 3.0 UMI
CMOS 45nm 45nm 45nm (4) 32nm 32nm
Integrated Memory Controller + + + + +
Integrated Radeon HD Graphics - - - - +
AMD Turbo CORE - -/
-/
+
- + +/-
AMD Virtualization
(AMD-V)
+ + + + +
AMD64 + + + + +
AMD Wide Floating Point Accelerator ? + + Dual +
AMD PowerNow!
(Cool'n'Quiet)
? 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
(1)  The AMD A-Series Processor is the first AMD desktop processor with a GPU integrated into the processor. To mark the occasion, AMD refers to the A-Series Processor as the A-Series Accelerated Processing Unit (A-Series APU).
(2)  The Phenom II X4 920 Processor (socket AM2+) and Phenom II X4 940 Processor (socket AM2+) are the only Phenom II Processors that are not socket AM3.
(3)  The Athlon II X4 631 Processor (socket FM1) and Athlon II X4 651 Processor (socket FM1) are the only Athlon II Processors that are not socket AM3.
(4)  The Athlon II X4 631 Processor (CMOS 32nm) and Athlon II X4 651 Processor (CMOS 32nm) are the only Athlon II Processors that are not CMOS 45nm.

4.2.  Latest Intel Desktop Processors And Technologies

4.2.1.  Previous Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop)

i
For Previous Generation Intel Core i7 and i7 Extreme Edition Processors (Desktop) for 1366 socket code named Bloomfield and Gulftown, see Intel High End Desktop Processors (below).
Previous Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop)
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 24 Apr 2016)
Processor/
Technology
Pentium
G6000
Series
Prev Gen
Core
i3
Prev Gen
Core
i5
Prev Gen
Core
i7
Code Name Clarkdale Clarkdale Lynnfield Lynnfield
Launched Q1'10-3'11 Q1'10-3'10 Q1'10-2'10 Q3'09-3'10 Q3'09-2'10
Socket (LGA) 1156 1156 1156
Lithography 32nm 32nm 45nm 45nm
Instruction Set 64-bit
Intel Smart Cache 3MB 4MB 4MB 8MB 8MB
Cores 2 2 4 4
Threads (1) 2 4 4 8
Max Memory 16GB 16GB 16GB
Memory Types DDR3-
1066
DDR3-
1066/1333
DDR3-
1066/1333
DDR3-
1066/1333
Memory Channels 2 2 2
Max Memory Bandwidth 17.1GB/s 21.3GB/s 21.3GB/s 21.3GB/s
Intel Processor Graphics HD HD - -
Intel Quick Sync Video -
PCIe Version (2) 2.0 2.0 2.0
PCIe Lanes (3) 16 16 16
Bus Type DMI DMI DMI
Processor/
Technology
Pentium
G6000
Series
Prev Gen
Core
i3
Prev Gen
Core
i5
Prev Gen
Core
i7
Code Name Clarkdale Clarkdale Lynnfield Lynnfield
Intel Turbo Boost - 1.0 1.0
Intel vPro - +/- - +/-
Intel Virtualization (VT-x) +
Intel Virtualization For
Directed I/O (VT-d)
- +/- - +/-
Intel VT-x With Extended
Page Tables (EPT)
+
Intel TSX-NI -
Idle States +
Enhanced Intel SpeedStep +
Thermal Monitoring -
Intel Identity Protection -
Intel Small
Business Advantage
-
AES New Instructions - + - -
Intel Secure Key -
OS Guard -
Intel Trusted Execution - +/- - +/-
Execute Disable Bit +
(1)  Reflects whether or not the processor supports Intel Hyper-Threading. If no, the number of threads equals the number of cores. If yes, the number of threads equals 2x the number of cores.
(2)  The PCIe version supported by the processor for PCIe add-in GPU(s), not the PCIe version supported by the motherboard chipset PCH for other PCIe cards.
(3)  The number of PCIe lanes supported by the processor for PCIe add-in GPU(s), not the number of PCIe lanes supported by the motherboard chipset PCH for other PCIe cards.

4.2.2.  2nd Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop)

2nd Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop)
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 27 Apr 2016)
Processor/
Technology
Celeron
G400
Series
Celeron
G500
Series
Pentium
G600
Series
Pentium
G800
Series
2nd Gen
Core
i3
2nd Gen
Core
i5
2nd Gen
Core
i7
Code Name Sandy Bridge
Launched Q3'11-2'13 Q3'11-3'12 Q2'11-3'12 Q2'11-3'12 Q1'11-3'11 Q1'11-1'12 Q1'11-4'11
Socket (LGA) 1155
Lithography 32nm
Instruction Set 64-bit
Intel Smart Cache 1MB/1.5MB 2MB 3MB 3MB/6MB 8MB
Cores 1 2 2/4 4
Threads (1) 1/2 2 4 8
Max Memory 32GB
Memory Types DDR3-
1066/
DDR3-
1066/1333
DDR3-
1066
DDR3-
1066/1333
Memory Channels 2
Max Memory Bandwidth 21.3GB/s 17.1GB/s 21.3GB/s
Intel Processor Graphics HD HD 2000/
HD 3000
-/
HD 2000/
HD 3000
HD 2000/
HD 3000
Intel Quick Sync Video - +
PCIe Version (2) 2.0
PCIe Lanes (3) 16
Bus Type DMI2
Processor/
Technology
Celeron
G400
Series
Celeron
G500
Series
Pentium
G600
Series
Pentium
G800
Series
2nd Gen
Core
i3
2nd Gen
Core
i5
2nd Gen
Core
i7
Code Name Sandy Bridge
Intel Turbo Boost - 2.0
Intel vPro - +/-
Intel Virtualization (VT-x) +
Intel Virtualization For
Directed I/O (VT-d)
- +/-
Intel VT-x With Extended
Page Tables (EPT)
+
Intel TSX-NI -
Idle States +
Enhanced Intel SpeedStep +/- +
Thermal Monitoring +
Intel Identity Protection - +
Intel Small
Business Advantage
-
AES New Instructions - +
Intel Secure Key -
OS Guard -
Intel Trusted Execution - +/-
Execute Disable Bit +
(1)  Reflects whether or not the processor supports Intel Hyper-Threading. If no, the number of threads equals the number of cores. If yes, the number of threads equals 2x the number of cores.
(2)  The PCIe version supported by the processor for PCIe add-in GPU(s), not the PCIe version supported by the motherboard chipset PCH for other PCIe cards.
(3)  The number of PCIe lanes supported by the processor for PCIe add-in GPU(s), not the number of PCIe lanes supported by the motherboard chipset PCH for other PCIe cards.

4.2.3.  3rd Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop)

i
For 3rd Generation Intel Core i7 and i7 Extreme Edition Processors (Desktop) for 2011 socket code named Sandy Bridge E, see Intel High End Desktop Processors (below).
3rd Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop)
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 27 Apr 2016)
Processor/
Technology
Celeron
G1600
Series
Pentium
G2000
Series
Pentium
G2100
Series
3nd Gen
Core
i3
3nd Gen
Core
i5
3nd Gen
Core
i7
Code Name Ivy Bridge
Launched Q1'13-3'13 Q1'13-2'13 Q3'12-2'13 Q2'12-3'13 Q2'12
Socket (LGA) 1155
Lithography 22nm
Instruction Set 64-bit
Intel Smart Cache 2MB 3MB 3MB/6MB 8MB
Cores 2 2/4 4
Threads (1) 2 4 8
Max Memory 32GB
Memory Types (2) DDR3-
1333
DDR3-
1333/1600
Memory Channels 2
Max Memory Bandwidth 21.3GB/s 25.6GB/s
Intel Processor Graphics HD HD 2500/
HD 4000
-/
HD 2500/
HD 4000
HD 4000
Intel Quick Sync Video - +
PCIe Version (3) 2.0 3.0
PCIe Lanes (4) 16
Bus Type DMI2
Processor/
Technology
Celeron
G1600
Series
Pentium
G2000
Series
Pentium
G2100
Series
3nd Gen
Core
i3
3nd Gen
Core
i5
3rd Gen
Core
i7
Code Name Ivy Bridge
Intel Turbo Boost - 2.0
Intel vPro - +/-
Intel Virtualization (VT-x) +
Intel Virtualization For
Directed I/O (VT-d)
- +/-
Intel VT-x With Extended
Page Tables (EPT)
+
Intel TSX-NI -
Idle States +
Enhanced Intel SpeedStep +
Thermal Monitoring +
Intel Identity Protection - +
Intel Small
Business Advantage
-
AES New Instructions - +
Intel Secure Key - +
OS Guard -
Intel Trusted Execution - +/-
Execute Disable Bit +
(1)  Reflects whether or not the processor supports Intel Hyper-Threading. If no, the number of threads equals the number of cores. If yes, the number of threads equals 2x the number of cores.
(2)  Also support DDR3L @ 1.5V at the specified transfer rates.
(3)  The PCIe version supported by the processor for PCIe add-in GPU(s), not the PCIe version supported by the motherboard chipset PCH for other PCIe cards.
(4)  The number of PCIe lanes supported by the processor for PCIe add-in GPU(s), not the number of PCIe lanes supported by the motherboard chipset PCH for other PCIe cards.

4.2.4.  4th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop)

i
For 4th Generation Intel Core i7 and i7 Extreme Edition Processors (Desktop) for 2011 socket code named Ivy Bridge E, see Intel High End Desktop Processors (below).
4th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop)
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 27 Apr 2016)
Processor/
Technology
Celeron
G1800
Series
Pentium
G3200
Series
Pentium
G3400
Series
4th Gen
Core
i3
4th Gen
Core
i5
4th Gen
Core
i7
Code Name Haswell (1) Haswell (2) Devil's
Canyon
Crystal
Well (3)
Haswell (4) Devil's
Canyon
Crystal
Well (5)
Launched Q1'14-2'14 Q3'13-1'15 Q2'13-2'14 Q2'14 Q2'13 Q2'13-2'14 Q2'14 Q2'13
Socket LGA1150 LGA1150 BGA1364 LGA1150 BGA1364
Lithography 22nm
Instruction Set 64-bit
Intel Smart Cache 2MB 3MB 3MB/4MB 4MB/6MB 6MB 4MB 8MB 6MB
Cores 2 2/4 4 4
Threads (6) 2 4 4 8
Max Memory 32GB
Memory Types (7) DDR3-
1333
DDR3-
1333/1600
DDR3-
1333/1600
DDR3-
1333/1600
Memory Channels 2
Max Memory Bandwidth 21.3GB/s 25.6GB/s 25.6GB/s 25.6GB/s
Intel Processor Graphics HD HD 4400/
HD 4600
HD 4600 Iris Pro 5200 HD 4600 Iris Pro 5200
Intel Quick Sync Video +
PCIe Version (8) 3.0
PCIe Lanes (9) 16
Bus Type DMI2
Processor/
Technology
Celeron
G1800
Series
Pentium
G3200
Series
Pentium
G3400
Series
4th Gen
Core
i3
4th Gen
Core
i5
4th Gen
Core
i7
Code Name Haswell Haswell Devil's
Canyon
Crystal
Well
Haswell Devil's
Canyon
Crystal
Well
Intel Turbo Boost - 2.0 2.0
Intel vPro - +/- - +/- -
Intel Virtualization (VT-x) +
Intel Virtualization For
Directed I/O (VT-d)
- +/- + +/- +
Intel VT-x With Extended
Page Tables (EPT)
+
Intel TSX-NI -
Idle States +
Enhanced Intel SpeedStep +
Thermal Monitoring +
Intel Identity Protection - + +
Intel Small
Business Advantage
- + + - + -
AES New Instructions - + + +
Intel Secure Key + +/- + +
OS Guard - + +
Intel Trusted Execution - +/- - +/- -
Execute Disable Bit +
(1) (2) (4)  The 4th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop) code named Haswell feature new C6/C7 low power sleep states that require a power supply that is compatible with the new C6/C7 low power sleep states. Alternatively, the new C6/C7 low power sleep states can be disabled in the motherboard BIOS. To avoid issues with incompatible power supplies, some motherboards have the new C6/C7 low power sleep states disabled in the BIOS by default.
(3) (5)  The 4th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop) include a new series, the R series. Although code named Crystal Well by Intel, many, apparently to keep things simple, are classifying the R series 4th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop) under code name Haswell, or are referring to them, for example, as "Haswell with Crystal Well." But more importantly, the R series 4th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop) are socket BGA1364 and include Integrated Intel Iris Pro graphics 5200. Socket BGA1364 means the processor is: 1.) installed by soldering to the motherboard; 2.) sold pre-affixed to a motherboard or as part of a pre-built system, not individually; and 3.) difficult to replace/upgrade.
(6)  Reflects whether or not the processor supports Intel Hyper-Threading. If no, the number of threads equals the number of cores. If yes, the number of threads equals 2x the number of cores.
(7)  Also support DDR3L @ 1.5V at the specified transfer rates.
(8)  The PCIe version supported by the processor for PCIe add-in GPU(s), not the PCIe version supported by the motherboard chipset PCH for other PCIe cards.
(9)  The number of PCIe lanes supported by the processor for PCIe add-in GPU(s), not the number of PCIe lanes supported by the motherboard chipset PCH for other PCIe cards.

4.2.5.  5th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop)

i
For 5th Generation Intel Core i7 and i7 Extreme Edition Processors (Desktop) for 2011-v3 socket code named Haswell E, see Intel High End Desktop Processors (below).
5th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop)
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 27 Apr 2016)
Processor/
Technology
5th Gen
Core
i5
5th Gen
Core
i7
Code Name Broadwell
Launched Q2'15
Socket LGA1150 BGA1364 (1) LGA1150 BGA1364 (2)
Lithography 14nm
Instruction Set 64-bit
Intel Smart Cache 4MB 6MB
Cores 4
Threads (3) 4 8
Max Memory 32GB
Memory Types (4) DDR3-
1333/1600
DDR3-
1333/1600/1866
DDR3-
1333/1600
DDR3-
1333/1600/1866
Memory Channels 2
Max Memory Bandwidth 25.6GB/s 29.9GB/s 25.6GB/s 29.9GB/s
Intel Processor Graphics Iris Pro 6200
Intel Quick Sync Video +
PCIe Version (5) 3.0
PCIe Lanes (6) 16
Bus Type DMI2
Processor/
Technology
5th Gen
Core
i5
5th Gen
Core
i7
Code Name Broadwell
Intel Turbo Boost 2.0
Intel vPro -
Intel Virtualization (VT-x) +
Intel Virtualization For
Directed I/O (VT-d)
+
Intel VT-x With Extended
Page Tables (EPT)
+
Intel TSX-NI +
Idle States +
Enhanced Intel SpeedStep +
Thermal Monitoring +
Intel Identity Protection +
Intel Small
Business Advantage
-
AES New Instructions +
Intel Secure Key +
OS Guard +
Intel Trusted Execution -
Execute Disable Bit +
(1) (2)  Like the R series 4th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop), the R series 5th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop) are socket BGA1364. Socket BGA1364 means the processor is: 1.) installed by soldering to the motherboard; 2.) sold pre-affixed to a motherboard or as part of a pre-built system, not individually; and 3.) difficult to replace/upgrade.
(3)  Reflects whether or not the processor supports Intel Hyper-Threading. If no, the number of threads equals the number of cores. If yes, the number of threads equals 2x the number of cores.
(4)  Also support DDR3L @ 1.5V at the specified transfer rates.
(5)  The PCIe version supported by the processor for PCIe add-in GPU(s), not the PCIe version supported by the motherboard chipset PCH for other PCIe cards.
(6)  The number of PCIe lanes supported by the processor for PCIe add-in GPU(s), not the number of PCIe lanes supported by the motherboard chipset PCH for other PCIe cards.

4.2.6.  6th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop)

6th Generation Intel Core Processors (Desktop)
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 27 Apr 2016)
Processor/
Technology
Celeron
G3900
Series
Pentium
G4400
Series
Pentium
G4500
Series
6th Gen
Core
i3
6th Gen
Core
i5
6th Gen
Core
i7
Code Name Skylake
Launched Q4'15 Q3'15 Q3'15-4'15 Q3'15
Socket (LGA) 1151
Lithography 14nm
Instruction Set 64-bit
Intel Smart Cache 2MB 3MB 3MB/4MB 6MB 8MB
Cores 2 4
Threads (1) 2 4 8
Max Memory 64GB
Memory Types (2) DDR4-
1866/2133
Memory Channels 2
Max Memory Bandwidth 34.1GB/s
Intel Processor Graphics HD 510 HD 530 HD 510/
HD 530
HD 530
Intel Quick Sync Video +
PCIe Version (3) 3.0
PCIe Lanes (4) 16
Bus Type DMI3
Processor/
Technology
Celeron
G3900
Series
Pentium
G4400
Series
Pentium
G4500
Series
6th Gen
Core
i3
6th Gen
Core
i5
6th Gen
Core
i7
Code Name Skylake
Intel Turbo Boost - 2.0
Intel vPro - +/-
Intel Virtualization (VT-x) +
Intel Virtualization For
Directed I/O (VT-d)
+
Intel VT-x With Extended
Page Tables (EPT)
+
Intel TSX-NI - +/- +
Idle States +
Enhanced Intel SpeedStep +
Thermal Monitoring +
Intel Identity Protection - +
Intel Small
Business Advantage
- +
AES New Instructions +
Intel Secure Key +
OS Guard - +
Intel Trusted Execution - +/-
Execute Disable Bit +
(1)  Reflects whether or not the processor supports Intel Hyper-Threading. If no, the number of threads equals the number of cores. If yes, the number of threads equals 2x the number of cores.
(2)  Also support DDR3L-1333/1600 @ 1.35V. To use a 6th Generation Intel Core Processor (Desktop) with DDR4 SDRAM, get an Intel 100 Series Chipset (Desktop) motherboard with DDR4 SDRAM slots. To use a 6th Generation Intel Core Processor (Desktop) with DDR3L SDRAM, get an Intel 100 Series Chipset (Desktop) motherboard with DDR3 SDRAM slots.
(3)  The PCIe version supported by the processor for PCIe add-in GPU(s), not the PCIe version supported by the motherboard chipset PCH for other PCIe cards.
(4)  The number of PCIe lanes supported by the processor for PCIe add-in GPU(s), not the number of PCIe lanes supported by the motherboard chipset PCH for other PCIe cards.

4.2.7.  High End Intel Desktop Processors

High End Intel Desktop Processors
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 27 Apr 2016)
Processor/
Technology
High End
Prev Gen
Core
i7
High End
Prev Gen
Core
i7 Extr Ed
High End
3rd Gen
Core
i7
High End
3rd Gen
Core
i7 Extr Ed
High End
4th Gen
Core
i7
High End
4th Gen
Core
i7 Extr Ed
High End
5th Gen
Core
i7
High End
5th Gen
Core
i7 Extr Ed
Code Name Bloomfield Gulftown Bloomfield Gulftown Sandy Bridge E (1) Ivy Bridge E (2) Haswell E (3)
Launched Q4'08-1'10 Q3'10-2'11 Q4'08-2'09 Q1'10-1'11 Q4'11-1'12 Q4'11-4'12 Q3'13 Q3'14
Socket (LGA) 1366 1366 2011 2011 2011-v3
Lithography 45nm 32nm 45nm 32nm 32nm 22nm 22nm
Instruction Set 64-bit
Intel Smart Cache 8MB 12MB 8MB 12MB 10MB/12MB 15MB 10MB/12MB 15MB 15MB 20MB
Cores 4 6 4 6 4/6 6 4/6 6 6 8
Threads (4) 8 12 8 12 8/12 12 8/12 12 12 16
Max Memory 24GB 24GB 64GB 64GB 64GB
Memory Types DDR3-
800/1066
DDR3-
800/1066
DDR3-
1066/1333/1600
DDR3-
1333/1600/1866
DDR4-
1600/1866/2133
Memory Channels 3 3 4 4 4
Max Memory Bandwidth 25.6GB/s 25.6GB/s 51.2GB/s 59.7GB/s 68.3GB/s
Intel Processor Graphics -
Intel Quick Sync Video -
PCIe Version (5) NA NA 3.0 Ready (6) 3.0 3.0
PCIe Lanes (7) NA NA 40 40 28/40 40
Bus Type QPI/DMI QPI/DMI DMI2 DMI2 DMI2
Processor/
Technology
High End
Prev Gen
Core
i7
High End
Prev Gen
Core
i7 Extr Ed
High End
3rd Gen
Core
i7
High End
3rd Gen
Core
i7 Extr Ed
High End
4th Gen
Core
i7
High End
4th Gen
Core
i7 Extr Ed
High End
5th Gen
Core
i7
High End
5th Gen
Core
i7 Extr Ed
Code Name Bloomfield Gulftown Bloomfield Gulftown Sandy Bridge E Ivy Bridge E Haswell E
Intel Turbo Boost 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
Intel vPro -
Intel Virtualization (VT-x) +
Intel Virtualization For
Directed I/O (VT-d)
- - + + +
Intel VT-x With Extended
Page Tables (EPT)
+
Intel TSX-NI -
Idle States +
Enhanced Intel SpeedStep +
Thermal Monitoring - - + + +
Intel Identity Protection - - + + +
Intel Small
Business Advantage
-
AES New Instructions - + - + + + +
Intel Secure Key -
OS Guard -
Intel Trusted Execution -
Execute Disable Bit +
(1)  The Intel Core i7 Processors code named Sandy Bridge E include the i7-3820, i7-3930K, i7-3960X Extreme Edition, and i7-3970X Extreme Edition. Although these processors are code named Sandy Bridge and have 32nm lithography (which corresponds to the 2nd Gen Intel Core Processors), Intel classifies them as 3rd Gen Intel Core Processors (which corresponds to their 38xx and 39xx number).
(2)  The Intel Core i7 Processors code named Ivy Bridge E include the i7-4820K, i7-4930K, and i7-4960X Extreme Edition. Although these processors are code named Ivy Bridge (which corresponds to the 3rd Gen Intel Core Processors), Intel classifies them as 4th Gen Intel Core Processors (which corresponds to their 48xx and 49xx number).
(3)  The Intel Core i7 Processors code named Haswell E include the i7-5820K, i7-5930K, and i7-5960X Extreme Edition. Although these processors are code named Haswell and have 22nm lithography (which corresponds to the 4th Gen Intel Core Processors), they are classified as 5th Gen Intel Core Processors (which corresponds to their 58xx and 59xx number).
(4)  Reflects whether or not the processor supports Intel Hyper-Threading. If no, the number of threads equals the number of cores. If yes, the number of threads equals 2x the number of cores.
(5)  The PCIe version supported by the processor for PCIe add-in GPU(s), not the PCIe version supported by the motherboard chipset IOH for PCIe add-in GPU(s), nor the PCIe version supported by the motherboard chipset ICH for other PCIe cards, nor the PCIe version supported by the motherboard chipset PCH for other PCIe cards.
(6)  The Intel Core i7 Processor Family For The LGA-2011 Socket: Datasheet, Volume 1 (intel.com) states that the processors feature up to 40 lanes of PCI Express interconnect that support PCIe 2.0 (5.0 GT/s) and are capable of up to PCIe 8.0GT/s. Although PCIe 8.0GT/s corresponds to PCIe 3.0, the datasheet does not, and cannot state that the processors support PCIe 3.0 because no PCIe 3.0 add-in GPUs existed at the time for testing. When PCIe 3.0 add-in GPUs became available, AnandTech reported (Sandy Bridge E & X79 PCIe 3.0: It Works (anandtech.com)) that X79/Sandy Bridge E supports PCIe 3.0 (8.0GT/s). NVIDIA, however, reported (Geforce 600 Series Gen3 Support On X79 Platform (nvidia.custhelp.com)) that they had identified an issue with X79/Sandy Bridge E, and that, because of the issue, they could only support and guarantee PCIe 2.0 (5GT/s) on X79/Sandy Bridge-E with their standard release drivers. Therefore, the processors are listed in this table as 3.0 Ready, not 2.0 or 3.0.
(7)  The number of PCIe lanes supported by the processor for PCIe add-in GPU(s), not the number of PCIe lanes supported by the motherboard chipset IOH for PCIe add-in GPU(s), nor the number of PCIe lanes supported by the motherboard chipset ICH for other PCIe cards, nor the number of PCIe lanes supported by the motherboard chipset PCH for other PCIe cards.

5.  Memory

5.1.  PC66 Through PC133 SDRAM Memory Specifications

PC66 Through PC133 SDRAM Memory Specifications
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 26 Apr 2016)
Name By Effective Frequency (MHz) PC66 PC100 PC133
Name By Peak Bandwidth (MB/s) - - -
I/O Pin Frequency (1) 66MHz 100MHz 133MHz
T/c (2) 1 1 1
T/s 66MHz x 1T/c =
66MT/s
100MHz x 1T/c =
100MT/s
133MHz x 1T/c =
133MT/s
Effective Frequency (3) 66MHz 100MHz 133MHz
Peak Bandwidth 66MT/s x 8B/T =
533MB/s
100MT/s x 8B/T =
800MB/s
133MT/s x 8B/T =
1066MB/s =
1.06GB/s
(1)  I/O Pin Frequency: Clock cycle rate at the memory I/O pins, which is where the memory interfaces with the memory bus.
(2)  T/c: Data transfers (T) at the memory I/O pins per memory I/O pin clock cycle (c).
(3)  Effective Frequency: The memory I/O pin frequency that would be required to achieve a given transfers/second at 1cycle/transfer, which is T/s x 1c/T. Therefore, for DDR/DDR2/DDR3/DDR4 SDRAM, since data is transferred twice per memory I/O pin cycle, the effective frequency (a.k.a., data frequency) is twice the memory I/O pin frequency.

5.2.  DDR SDRAM Memory Specifications

DDR SDRAM Memory Specifications
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 26 Apr 2016)
Name By Effective Frequency (MHz) DDR-200 DDR-266 DDR-333 DDR-400
Name By Peak Bandwidth (MB/s) PC-1600 PC-2100 PC-2600 PC-3200
I/O Pin Frequency (1) 100MHz 133MHz 166MHz 200MHz
T/c (2) 2 2 2 2
T/s 100MHz x 2T/c =
200MT/s
133MHz x 2T/c =
266MT/s
166MHz x 2T/c =
333MT/s
200MHz x 2T/c =
400MT/s
Effective Frequency (3) 200MHz 266MHz 333MHz 400MHz
Peak Bandwidth 200MT/s x 8B/T =
1600MB/s =
1.6GB/s
266MT/s x 8B/T =
2100MB/s =
2.1GB/s
333MT/s x 8B/T =
2600MB/s =
2.6GB/s
400MT/s x 8B/T =
3200MB/s =
3.2GB/s
(1)  I/O Pin Frequency: Clock cycle rate at the memory I/O pins, which is where the memory interfaces with the memory bus.
(2)  T/c: Data transfers (T) at the memory I/O pins per memory I/O pin clock cycle (c).
(3)  Effective Frequency: The memory I/O pin frequency that would be required to achieve a given transfers/second at 1cycle/transfer, which is T/s x 1c/T. Therefore, for DDR/DDR2/DDR3/DDR4 SDRAM, since data is transferred twice per memory I/O pin cycle, the effective frequency (a.k.a., data frequency) is twice the memory I/O pin frequency.

5.3.  DDR2 SDRAM Memory Specifications

DDR2 SDRAM Memory Specifications
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 26 Apr 2016)
Name By Effective Frequency (MHz) DDR2-400 DDR2-533 DDR2-667 DDR2-800
Name By Peak Bandwidth (MB/s) PC2-3200 PC2-4200 PC2-5300 (1) PC2-6400
I/O Pin Frequency (2) 200MHz 266MHz 333MHz 400MHz
T/c (3) 2 2 2 2
T/s 200MHz x 2T/c =
400MT/s
266MHz x 2T/c =
533MT/s
333MHz x 2T/c =
667MT/s
400MHz x 2T/c =
800MT/s
Effective Frequency (4) 400MHz 533MHz 667MHz 800MHz
Peak Bandwidth 400MT/s x 8B/T =
3200MB/s =
3.2GB/s
533MT/s x 8B/T =
4200MB/s =
4.2GB/s
667MT/s x 8B/T =
5300MB/s =
5.3GB/s
800MT/s x 8B/T =
6400MB/s =
6.4GB/s
(1)  Some memory manufacturers use name PC2-5400 instead of PC2-5300. PC2-5300 and PC2-5400 are identical memory that differ only in name.
(2)  I/O Pin Frequency: Clock cycle rate at the memory I/O pins, which is where the memory interfaces with the memory bus.
(3)  T/c: Data transfers (T) at the memory I/O pins per memory I/O pin clock cycle (c).
(4)  Effective Frequency: The memory I/O pin frequency that would be required to achieve a given transfers/second at 1cycle/transfer, which is T/s x 1c/T. Therefore, for DDR/DDR2/DDR3/DDR4 SDRAM, since data is transferred twice per memory I/O pin cycle, the effective frequency (a.k.a., data frequency) is twice the memory I/O pin frequency.

5.4.  DDR3 SDRAM Memory Specifications

DDR3 SDRAM Memory Specifications
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 26 Apr 2016)
Name By Effective Frequency (MHz) DDR3-800 DDR3-1066 DDR3-1333 DDR3-1600 DDR3-1866 DDR3-2133
Name By Peak Bandwidth (MB/s) PC3-6400 PC3-8500 PC3-10666 (1) PC3-12800 PC3-14900 (2) PC3-17000
I/O Pin Frequency (3) 400MHz 533MHz 667MHz 800MHz 933MHz 1067MHz
T/c (4) 2 2 2 2 2 2
T/s 400MHz x 2T/c =
800MT/s
533MHz x 2T/c =
1066MT/s
667MHz x 2T/c =
1333MT/s
800MHz x 2T/c =
1600MT/s
933MHz x 2T/c =
1866MT/s
1067MHz x 2T/c =
2133MT/s
Effective Frequency (5) 800MHz 1066MHz 1333MHz 1600MHz 1866MHz 2133MHz
Peak Bandwidth 800MT/s x 8B/T =
6400MB/s =
6.4GB/s
1066MT/s x 8B/T =
8500MB/s =
8.5GB/s
1333MT/s x 8B/T =
10666MB/s =
10.6GB/s
1600MT/s x 8B/T =
12800MB/s =
12.8GB/s
1866MT/s x 8B/T =
14900MB/s =
14.9GB/s
2133MT/s x 8B/T =
17000MB/s =
17.0GB/s
(1)  PC3-10666 is also known as PC3-10600. PC3-10666 and PC3-10600 are identical memory that differ only in name.
(2)  PC3-14900 is also known as PC3-15000. PC3-14900 and PC3-15000 are identical memory that differ only in name.
(3)  I/O Pin Frequency: Clock cycle rate at the memory I/O pins, which is where the memory interfaces with the memory bus.
(4)  T/c: Data transfers (T) at the memory I/O pins per memory I/O pin clock cycle (c).
(5)  Effective Frequency: The memory I/O pin frequency that would be required to achieve a given transfers/second at 1cycle/transfer, which is T/s x 1c/T. Therefore, for DDR/DDR2/DDR3/DDR4 SDRAM, since data is transferred twice per memory I/O pin cycle, the effective frequency (a.k.a., data frequency) is twice the memory I/O pin frequency.

5.5.  DDR4 SDRAM Memory Specifications

DDR4 SDRAM Memory Specifications
(Last Reviewed/Updated: 26 Apr 2016)
Name By Effective Frequency (MHz) DDR4-1600 DDR4-1866 DDR4-2133 DDR4-2400 DDR4-2666 DDR4-3200
Name By Peak Bandwidth (MB/s) PC4-12800 PC4-14900 (1) PC4-17000 PC4-19200 PC4-21333 (2) PC4-25600
I/O Pin Frequency (3) 800MHz 933MHz 1067MHz 1200MHz 1333MHz 1600MHz
T/c (4) 2 2 2 2 2 2
T/s 800MHz x 2T/c =
1600MT/s
933MHz x 2T/c =
1866MT/s
1067MHz x 2T/c =
2133MT/s
1200MHz x 2T/c =
2400MT/s
1333MHz x 2T/c =
2666MT/s
1600MHz x 2T/c =
3200MT/s
Effective Frequency (5) 1600MHz 1866MHz 2133MHz 2400MHz 2666MHz 3200MHz
Peak Bandwidth 1600MT/s x 8B/T =
12800MB/s =
12.8GB/s
1866MT/s x 8B/T =
14900MB/s =
14.9GB/s
2133MT/s x 8B/T =
17000MB/s =
17.0GB/s
2400MT/s x 8B/T =
19200MB/s =
19.2GB/s
2666MT/s x 8B/T =
21333MB/s =
21.3GB/s
3200MT/s x 8B/T =
25600MB/s =
25.6GB/s
(1)  PC4-14900 is also known as PC4-15000. PC4-14900 and PC4-15000 are identical memory that differ only in name.
(2)  PC4-21333 is also known as PC4-21300. PC4-21333 and PC4-21300 are identical memory that differ only in name.
(3)  I/O Pin Frequency: Clock cycle rate at the memory I/O pins, which is where the memory interfaces with the memory bus.
(4)  T/c: Data transfers (T) at the memory I/O pins per memory I/O pin clock cycle (c).
(5)  Effective Frequency: The memory I/O pin frequency that would be required to achieve a given transfers/second at 1cycle/transfer, which is T/s x 1c/T. Therefore, for DDR/DDR2/DDR3/DDR4 SDRAM, since data is transferred twice per memory I/O pin cycle, the effective frequency (a.k.a., data frequency) is twice the memory I/O pin frequency.

6.  PCIe

i
For information on add-in GPUs, see Add-In GPU (below).

7.  GPU

7.1.  Integrated GPU

7.2.  Add-in GPU

i
For information on PCIe, see PCIe (above).

8.  Internal Data Storage

8.1.  PATA Hard Drive

i
Prior to the release of SATA hard drives, PATA hard drive were primarily referred to as ATA/IDE hard drives.

8.2.  SATA Hard Drive

i
With the release of SATA hard drives, hard drive data transfer rates started to be reported in bits/second, not Bytes/second as was the convention for PATA hard drives. It is no accident that this change in convention helped hide the fact that the initial SATA hard drives had data transfer rates only marginally faster than the latest PATA hard drives.

9.  USB


10.  Case

10.1.  Typical Case Dimensions And Motherboard Form Factor Support

Typical Case Dimensions And Motherboard Form Factor Support
Mini Tower Mid Tower Full Tower
Dimensions
(mm) (H x W x L)
350-425 x 175-200 x 425-475 425-550 x 175-220 x 450-550 550+ x 200+ x 550+
microATX
Motherboard
Support
+ + +
ATX
Motherboard
Support
- + +

10.2.  Absolute, Practical, And Preferred Minimum Case Sizes For microATX And ATX Motherboards

Absolute, Practical, And Preferred Minimum Case Sizes For microATX And ATX Motherboards
Case Size
(mm) (H x L)
microATX Motherboard ATX Motherboard
Absolute Minimum ~350 x 425 ~410 x 425
Practical Minimum 365 x 450 425 x 450
Preferred Minimum 400 x 475 450 x 475

10.3.  Inches To Millimeters

Inches To Millimeters
Inches Millimeters    Inches Millimeters    Inches Millimeters    Inches Millimeters
   10" 254mm    20" 508mm   
1" 25.4mm 11" 279mm 21" 533mm 0.1" 2.54mm
2" 50.8mm 12" 305mm 22" 559mm 0.2" 5.08mm
3" 76.2mm 13" 330mm 23" 584mm 0.3" 7.62mm
4" 102mm 14" 356mm 24" 610mm 0.4" 10.2mm
5" 127mm 15" 381mm 25" 635mm 0.5" 12.7mm
6" 152mm 16" 406mm 26" 660mm 0.6" 15.2mm
7" 178mm 17" 432mm 27" 686mm 0.7" 17.8mm
8" 203mm 18" 457mm 28" 711mm 0.8" 20.3mm
9" 229mm 19" 483mm 29" 737mm 0.9" 22.9mm

11.  Power Supply


12.  Resources And Additional Information